Drive Sources of the Future: The Li-Ion Batteries
The forces that move and propel the planet are rhythm and energy. Given the quick changes and developments in technology, electric automobiles are currently driving market investors, purchasers, and suitors insane. It’s incredible to consider how far we’ve come from combustion and fuel-powered vehicles to the increasingly popular electric vehicles, or EVs, as we’ve come to know them.
However, there is a force behind every successful story. This is the situation with these electric vehicles, which are propelled by lithium ion batteries.
But why only these… Why not use lithium batteries instead? Why not use any other batteries…why only these… It appears to be unjust to other battery kinds as well…. nevertheless, there is a deep rationale for this and a large amount of science to ponder in order to comprehend this notion… It goes like this:
The Electric Vehicles Batteries…. What’s so Unique About Them????
Electric-vehicle batteries differ from starting lights and ignition (SLI) batteries in that they are deep cycle batteries that are meant to provide power for long periods of time. Electric car batteries are distinguished by their high power to weight ratio, specific energy, and energy density; smaller, lighter batteries are preferred since they lower vehicle weight and hence increase performance. Most contemporary battery technologies have a lower specific energy than liquid fuels, which has an impact on the cars’ maximum all-electric range.
Here comes the Driving Force…. The Lithium Ion Batteries
Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used types of energy storage, accounting for 85.6 percent of all energy storage systems deployed in 2015. Li-ion batteries have a positive electrode made of lithium metal oxides, which can store lithium ions, and a negative electrode made of carbon. Lithium salts dissolved in organic carbonates are employed as the electrolyte. The operation of lithium-ion batteries is based on the two-phase transfer of lithium ions. Lithium ions move from the positive to the negative electrode while charging, whereas the converse happens during discharging. Temperature monitoring is not required for Li-ion batteries to function properly.
The anode’s lithium atoms are ionized and separated from their electrons during the discharge cycle. The lithium ions go from the anode to the cathode, where they recombine with their electrons and become electrically neutral. Between the anode and cathode, the lithium ions are tiny enough to pass through a micro-permeable separator. Li-ion batteries are capable of having a very high voltage and charge storage per unit mass and volume, thanks in part to lithium’s small size (third only to hydrogen and helium).
Li-on battery Types
- Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) — LFP
- Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2) — NCA
- Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) — NMC
- Lithium Titanate (Li2TiO3) — LTO
- Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) — LMO
- Lithium Cobalt Oxide(LiCoO2) — LCO
Okay But why not use Lithium Batteries… Even they are a good source of power and do provide the same specs as well.. so why?????
The type of cell used in lithium and lithium-ion batteries is the most significant difference. Lithium batteries are made up of primary cells. This indicates that they are non-rechargeable or single-use. Ion batteries, on the other hand, are made up of secondary cells. This means they can be recharged and used multiple times.
Of course, this explanation is sufficient to accept the fact that lithium ion batteries are superior to their equivalents… I mean, who doesn’t prefer a reusable and rechargeable source than a one-time use one….???
Why Lithium Ion Batteries???
Yes, Lithium Ion Batteries are the lone winners among those competitors, and the reasons are as follows:
Li-ion batteries provide a variety of advantages over other high-quality rechargeable battery technologies (nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal-hydride).
- They offer one of the highest energy densities (100–265 Wh/kg or 250–670 Wh/L) of any battery technology available today.
- Furthermore, Li-ion battery cells can deliver up to 3.6 Volts, which is three times higher than Ni-Cd or Ni-MH technology. This means they can supply a lot of current for high-power applications, which is a good thing. Li-ion batteries are also low-maintenance, as they don’t need to be cycled on a regular basis to keep their life.
- Li-ion batteries have no memory effect, which is a harmful phenomenon in which a battery can ’remember’ a decreased capacity after repeated partial discharge/charge cycles. This is an advantage over Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, which also exhibit this behavior.
- In addition, Li-ion batteries have a low self-discharge rate of 1.5–2% each month.
- They don’t contain the hazardous cadmium found in Ni-Cd batteries, making them easier to dispose of.
Lithium is Long-Lasting
RE-Li-ON Lithium batteries last up to ten times longer than lead-acid batteries, and after 2,000 cycles, they still hold 80 percent of their rated capacity. Lithium-ion batteries typically last five years or longer. The typical life of a lead-acid battery is only two years. Lead-acid batteries must also be maintained, with water replenishment required to minimize structural damage; if not correctly maintained, their life span is lowered even further. A one-time purchase ensures lifetime because lithium batteries do not require active maintenance.
Lithium is Quick & Efficient
Lithium has a high rate of charge and discharge, allowing it to be used in a wide range of applications. Fast charging cuts down on downtime, and lithium’s high rate of discharge is ideal for a power burst. Lead-acid batteries require more time to charge and function inefficiently during heavy discharge periods, making them less adaptable than lithium-ion batteries. The efficiency of lithium is unrivalled, especially in high-stress conditions. Temperature changes and energy depletion have no effect on lithium’s power delivery, unlike lead-acid batteries. Lithium is the obvious choice for applications that will deplete the batteries or operate in harsh conditions.
Lithium is the Lightweight Champ
RE-Li-ON LiFePO4 batteries deliver greater energy and are often half the weight of lead-acid batteries, alleviating worries about battery weight. Lithium provides the same or greater energy than other battery chemistries while being half the weight and size. This means you’ll have more options and it’ll be easier to install!
Manufacturing Process of These Batteries
Figure 1 introduces the current state-of-the-art battery manufacturing process, which includes three major parts: electrode preparation, cell assembly, and battery electrochemistry activation. First, the active material (AM), conductive additive, and binder are mixed to form a uniform slurry with the solvent. For the cathode, N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) is normally used to dissolve the binder, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and for the anode, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) binder is dissolved in water with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The slurry is then pumped into a slot die, coated on both sides of the current collector (Al foil for cathode and Cu foil for the anode), and delivered to drying equipment to evaporate the solvent. The common organic solvent (NMP) for cathode slurry is toxic and has strict emission regulations. Thus a solvent recovery process is necessary for the cathode production during drying and the recovered NMP is reused in battery manufacturing with 20%–30% loss (Ahmed et al., 2016). For the water-based anode slurry, the harmless vapor can be exhausted to the ambient environment directly. The following calendering process can help adjust the physical properties (bonding, conductivity, density, porosity, etc.) of the electrodes. After all these processes, the finished electrodes are stamped and slitted to the required dimension to fit the cell design. The electrodes are then sent to the vacuum oven to remove the excess water. The moisture level of the electrodes will be checked after drying to ensure the side reaction and corrosion in the cell are minimized.
Comparisons of Different Types of Li-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles
There are no ideal candidates for the electric powertrain, and Li-ion batteries remain a viable option. The graph compares several types of Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles based on numerous criteria, with the larger colored region being more desirable. Specific energy, specific power, safety, performance, life span, and cost are all important considerations. The specific energy of a battery is the amount of energy it can store per unit weight, which indicates the driving range. Specific power refers to a vehicle’s ability to deliver a high current on demand and indicates its potential acceleration. Naturally, one of the most important considerations when selecting a battery for an electric vehicle is safety; an event might have a considerable impact on public perception. When driving an electric vehicle in severe temperatures, performance reflects the state of the battery. Cycle count and lifespan are shown in Life Span. With necessary auxiliary systems for safety, battery management for state of charge status monitoring, climate control for lifespan, and an 8–10-year warranty, cost naturally presents a technology feasibility barrier.
Characteristics of Lithium Ion Batteries
We attempted to provide an overview of Li-ion batteries as an energy storage technology for electric vehicles. Different positive and negative electrode materials, different types of electrolytes, and the physical implementation of Li-ion batteries are given and contrasted, as well as components of battery management systems. Existing lithium batteries’ performance is significantly influenced by material and thermal properties. As previously said, the electrodes generate the majority of the heat generated by the battery, and more study into alternative cooling technologies and electrode design criteria is required to reduce or compensate for the heat, hence enhancing battery life and capacity. When electric vehicle batteries reach the end of their useful lives, research is revealing how to repurpose them as a supplement to the existing power system or recycle the battery materials once they are no longer viable.